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                               E
                             -------------
                          SQL
 
 
 
 
      ====================   1:    ================
 
 
             ----------------------------------------------
               snum  |   sname   |  city        |   comm
             --------|-----------|--------------|----------
               1001  |  Peel     |  London      |    .12
               1002  |  Serres   |  San Jose    |    .13
               1004  |  Motika   |  London      |    .11
               1007  |  Rifkin   |  Barcelona   |    .15
               1003  |  Axelrod  |  New York    |    .10
             ---------------------------------------------
 
 
       ==================   2:    ===============
 
 
             ----------------------------------------------
              cnum  |  cname     | city    | rating | snum
             -------|------------|---------|--------|------
              2001  |  Hoffman   | London  |   100  | 1001
              2002  |  Giovanni  | Rome    |   200  | 1003
              2003  |  Liu       | SanJose |   200  | 1002
              2004  |  Grass     | Berlin  |   300  | 1002
              2006  |  Clemens   | London  |   100  | 1001
              2008  |  Cisneros  | SanJose |   300  | 1007
              2007  |  Pereira   | Rome    |   100  | 1004
             ----------------------------------------------
 
 
      ==================   3:     ==================
 
 
            -----------------------------------------------
             onum  |    amt    |    odate    | cnum | snum
            -------|-----------|-------------|------|------
             3001  |    18.69  |  10/03/1990 | 2008 | 1007
             3003  |   767.19  |  10/03/1990 | 2001 | 1001
             3002  |  1900.10  |  10/03/1990 | 2007 | 1004
             3005  |  5160.45  |  10/03/1990 | 2003 | 1002
             3006  |  1098.16  |  10/03/1990 | 2008 | 1007
             3009  |  1713.23  |  10/04/1990 | 2002 | 1003
             3007  |    75.75  |  10/04/1990 | 2004 | 1002
             3008  |  4723.00  |  10/05/1990 | 2006 | 1001
             3010  |  1309.95  |  10/06/1990 | 2004 | 1002
             3011  |  9891.88  |  10/06/1990 | 2006 | 1001
            -----------------------------------------------
 
 
             =============   SELECT ===============
 
 
 
 
 SELECT * | { [ DISTINCT | ALL] < value expression >.,..}
    FROM { < table name > [ < alias > ] }.,..
    [ WHERE ]
    [ GROUP BY {  |  }.,..]
    [ HAVING ]
    [ ORDERBY {  |  }.,..]
 
 
    [ { UNION [ALL]
 
 
 SELECT * | { [DISTINCT | ALL] < value expression >.,..}
    FROM {  []} .,..
    [ WHERE < predicate >
    [ GROUP BY {  |  }.,..]
    [ HAVING ]
    [ ORDER BY {  |  }.,..] } ] ...;
 
 
 
 
          SELECT
 -------------------T------------------------------------------------
 |           |                                    |
 +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+
 |                  |                                               |
 ||    .  -|
 |                  |      .  |
 |                  |                                               |
 |
| , | | | | | |
,| | | | | | | | | | | | , | | | | | | FROM. | | | | | | . | | | | | | . , | | | | | | SELECT - | | | . | L------------------+------------------------------------------------ ========== UPDATE INSERT DELETE ========== UPDATE UPDATE SET { | }.,. .< column name> = [ WHERE | WHERE CURRENT OF (* *) ]; INSERT INSERT INTO < table name> [( ., . ] { VALUES ( .,.. ) } | ; DELETE DELETE FROM
[ WHERE | WHERE CURRENT OF (* *) ]; ------------------T------------------------------------------------- | | | +-----------------+------------------------------------------------+ | | | | | .| | | | | | SELECT. | +-----------------+------------------------------------------------+ | SELECT. | L------------------------------------------------------------------- -------T------------------------------------------------------------ || | +------+-----------------------------------------------------------+ | | | | | |, (|) , -| | | (|). - | | | ""("or"). | | | | | { } |, | | | |, .,.. . | | | | | [ ] |, | | | | | ... |, , | | |. | | | | | .,.. |, , - | | | , . | L------+------------------------------------------------------------ ========= CREATE TABLE =========== CREATE TABLE
( { I] [ ...]} .,.. ); [] .,.. ); CREATE TABLE ---------------T----------------------------------------------------- | | | +--------------+----------------------------------------------------+ | | | |
| . | | | | | | . | | | | | | . | | | : | | | INTEGER ( ), | | | CHARACTER (), | | | DECIMAL (), | | | NUMERIC (), | | | SMALLINT () | | | FLOAT ( ) | | | REAL (), | | | DOUBLE PRECISION ( | | | ), | | | LONG * ( *), | | | VARCHAR * ( ) *, | | | DATE ( *), | | | TIME () | | | | | |( * - SQL )| | | | | | | | | . . | | | | | | : | | | NOT NULL ( ), | | | UNIQUE (), | | | PRIMARY KEY ( ), | | | CHECK() ( ), | | | DEFAULT = ( = | | | ) | | | REFERENCES
( | | | [( .,.. )] [( ) ] ) | | | | | | : | | | UNIQUE (), | | | PRIMARY KEY ( ), | | | CHECK ( ) | | | FOREIGN KEY() ( ) | | | | | | REFERENCES
( | | | [( .,.. )] [( ) ]. | L--------------+-----------------------------------------------------


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